Archer Daniels Midland Companyby William Shurtleff and Akiko. Aoyagi. A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History of Soybeans and. Soyfoods, 1. 10. 0 B. C. to the 1. 98. 0sCopyright 2. Soyfoods Center, Lafayette, California. Deep Frying Chemistry, Nutrition, and Practical Applications Second Edition Editor Michael D. Erickson. Urbana, Illinois. Identity Card Tablets, Powders, Capsules, Emulsions and Suppositories Quick and efficient dispersibilityrelease of components when added to a liquid source for. FOOD FATS AND OILS Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils 1319 F Street NW, Suite 600 Washington, DC 20004 Phone 2027837960 Fax 2023931367. The second existing major soybean crusher to enter the industry, ADM was the first to use the solvent extraction process, the first to produce both industrial and food grade lecithin, and the pioneer in the development of textured soy protein, with which their brand TVP is almost synonymous. They presently have the largest soybean crushing plant in the world at Decatur, Illinois, and are the second largest soybean processing company in the US. Specialty Food Ingredients Market by Ingredient Functional Food Ingredients, Sugar Substitutes, Flavors, Specialty Starches, Acidulants, Preservatives, Emulsifiers. A COMPREHENSIVE HISTORY OF SOY History of Soybeans and Soyfoods Worldwide Past, Present and Future. William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi Soyinfo Center, Lafayette. In North America, Cargill is a supplier of carrageenan which is extracted from red seaweed and is used as a binding agent. Archer Daniels Midland Company 1929 Mid 1980s Work with Soy. Elements Chemical Reaction Engineering 4Th Edition Solutions. William Shurtleff and Akiko Aoyagi. A Chapter from the Unpublished Manuscript, History. The history of ADM goes back to 1. John W. Daniels founded the Daniels Linseed Company in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In February 1. 90. Profits for the first full year in business were 7. Americas leading crusher of flaxseed. In August 1. 90. 4, George A. Archer, who had had a 5. American Linseed Company, became director and vice president. In February 1. 90. Archer Daniels Linseed Company. Cargill Lecithin Pdf' title='Cargill Lecithin Pdf' />Mr. Daniels then 4. Mr. Archer then 5. In 1. Shreve M. Archer, the 2. George A. Archer, became treasurer of the company. In 1. 91. 4 the firm initiated its first venture outside Minneapolis by leasing a linseed mill at Superior, Wisconsin. That year Thomas L. Daniels, son of John W. Daniels, joined the company and did the bookkeeping for the new mill Cross 1. On 2. 3 May 1. 92. Archer Daniels Linseed Company and the Midlands Linseed Products Company, two of the leading firms in the industry, joined to form a new company, the Archer Daniels Midland Company. Midland, originally incorporated in 1. Minneapolis, had expanded very successfully by acquiring mills at Chicago, Toledo, and Edgewater, New Jersey. Its plants at Minneapolis and Edgewater adjoined those of Archer Daniels. The new company, with assets of 7. Its nine mills contained a total of 3. America. In November 1. John Daniels, then 6. Shreve Archer, who actively worked to expand ADMs share of the flax processing market in 1. It was also decided that the company needed to diversify its operations. Thus in 1. 92. 9 ADM first started to process soybeans at its Toledo and Chicago plants the hydraulic presses that had been used for flaxseed were used for soybeans. This move did not seem particularly momentous at the time because the US was just becoming aware of the potential of the soybean and ADMs initial soybean operations were not particularly large. In the late 1. 92. ADM was stumping the countryside to get farmers to grow more soybeans. ADM made its first bold step in soybean processing when it decided in the early 1. Chicago plant. As early as 1. William O. Goodrich Company acquired by ADM in 1. Scott Batch extraction system. Thus ADM had some experience in this area. But solvent extraction had not yet been used for volume production in the US since the extractors were large and expensive, soybean supply was limited, and a satisfactory solvent had not yet been found. Furthermore, it was still the depths of the Depression and ADMs 1. Nevertheless, in 1. Shreve Archer sent plant superintendent E. W. Schmidt to Europe to make a study of solvent extraction and bring back the best equipment. Solvent extraction had originated in Europe but only in recent years had it been widely used. Schmidt brought back a 1. Hildebrandt continuous flow, counter current hexane solvent extractor, which was installed in June 1. ADM now had the largest and most modern soybean processing system in America it left only 1 of the oil in the meal Ref. In 1. 93. 4 ADM began to produce soy lecithin from their crude soy oil, becoming the first US company to manufacture this product. This lecithin was industrial or feed grade food grade lecithin was not offered until the mid 1. The soybean meal produced by the new solvent system was 4. But the lower oil content made the solvent extracted meal very hard to sell. ADM spent a tremendous amount of money doing research and marketing work on the new meal. Initially it was placed on consignment with all types of dealers and distributors over a wide area. Said vice president Whitney H. Eastman, We might just as well have placed it on the shelves of jewelry stores in Iceland Dies 1. Years of work eventually made the product a great success in high protein feeds. A key man who spearheaded this drive for acceptance was Dr. James W. Hayward, who had done pioneering studies on soybean meal feeding, first at Purdue, then at the University of Wisconsin. He was brought to ADM in the mid 1. During all of this activity with soybeans, the two men who had founded the company died in consecutive years, John W. Daniels on 8 June 1. George A. Archer on 1. November 1. 93. 2 at age 8. In the late 1. ADM started to crush soybeans in its linseed oil plant in Minneapolis on a sporadic or part time basis Goldberg 1. In 1. 93. 9 Shreve M. Archer made an announcement of great importance in the companys annual report, hinted at, perhaps, by the fact that the word soybean was spelled with a capital S. Because of the growing importance of the Soybean industry the Board authorized the construction of a modern plant and elevator at Decatur, Illinois. This location was chosen because of the availability of raw material and a favorable rate structure. Construction was started early in the year and the plant should be in operation this fall. A. E. Staley now had a huge rival in his backyard. Once again Mr. Schmidt, then ADMs general superintendent, went to Europe to investigate the latest developments in solvent extraction. This time he ordered a Hansa Muehle unit which carried the flaked beans in buckets on a moving chain the Paternoster design inside a U shaped tube. The unit, which had a daily capacity of 4. Europe, made ADM the largest soybean processor in the world In November 1. The solvent unit occupied a five story tower storage capacity for 5 million bushels of soybeans was provided Cross 1. With this huge new plant, ADM was ready, just in time, to take full advantage of the phenomenal increase in demand for soyfoods and soybean meal that came as a result of World War II. On the eve of the war, at the end of 1. ADM, with headquarters still in Minneapolis, had six soybean processing plants located in Decatur, Chicago, Toledo, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and Buffalo. Soybean products were sold under the Archer brand. By 1. 94. 2 ADM had become a major producer of soy flour. During the war, while the consumption of soy oil was doubling and tripling, ADM laid plans for expansion, but they could not be implemented until wartime restrictions were lifted. Thus it was 1. 94. This plant helped make ADM Americas largest producer of soy flour. Also in 1. 94. 9 ADM made its first move into edible oils. A continuous flow refining unit was installed and in 1. Up to that time ADM had produced only crude soy oil for sale to margarine and shortening manufacturers. The new refinery made it possible for ADM to supply the food industry with cooking and salad oil and to furnish bulk edible soy oil to large consumers such as canners of tuna fish and sardines Cross 1. In November 1. 95. Pigment Metal, Minerals, Inert Pigments, Paint Additives and Oil Paint Driers. Color Index Generic Name Key Top Page TopThis is the C. I. Generic Name abbreviated given by the ASTM and Colour Index International CII for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. NA not applicable means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number. Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments. These are naturally occurring organic pigments and dyes. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments i. Madder Lake. A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth Van Dyke Brown. They are designated with C. I. Generic name of which consists of the usage class Natural and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number i. Natural Brown 8. Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N the hue abbreviation the serial number. NBr 8 Pigment. Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. They can be completely synthetic, naturally occurring minerals, or lakes based on the synthetic derivatives of natural dyes. Pigments are designated with C. I. Generic name which consists of the usage class Pigment and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number i. Pigment Red 1. 06, Cadmium Red. The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P the hue abbreviation the serial number. PR8. 3 for Pigment Red 8. NY Natural Yellow NO Natural Orange NR Natural Red NV Natural Violet NB Natural Blue NG Natural Green NBr Natural Brown NBk Natural Black NW Natural White PY Pigment Yellow PO Pigment Orange PR Pigment Red PV Pigment Violet PB Pigment Blue PG Pigment Green PBr Pigment Brown PBk Pigment Black PW Pigment White PM Pigment Metal. The CI Color Index Common Pigment Name Key Top Page TopIn this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index third edition, 1. Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. When the Colour Index 3rd edition has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research. Common, Historic and Marketing Names Key Top Page TopThese are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected in order of importance from. Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers andor other pigment supplier literature 2. Various web sites in particular AMIEN. Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint. Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments,PCImag. The Color Index, Third edition published by the Colour Index International, 1. Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms see Free Art e Books 5. Artist manuals and handbooks see the bottom of the Pigment Databases main page for a complete list of reference works 6. Various dictionaries and encyclopedias both historic and contemporary. When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the hue in parenthesis. For example callingnaming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as Azure, Smalt or Cobalt Blue. ASTM specification D 4. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage often perpetrated by manufacturers incorrect color marketing names, and last but not least the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paintpigment, its nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive. C. I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number chemical composition Key Top Page TopThese are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the Colour Index Constitution Number has a specific chemical or compositional meaning for more information. Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites these links open in a new window. Chemical Composition Key Top Page TopThese are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with Ref where further information can be attained. Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, andor drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i. Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens. These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label. Color Description Key Top Page TopThis is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this such as the Munsell system, but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1.
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