Desalination Wikipedia. Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance,1 as in soil desalination, which is an issue for agriculture. Saltwater is desalinated to produce water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One by product of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on cost effective provision of fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall independent water sources. Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is generally more costly than fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation. However, these alternatives are not always available and depletion of reserves is a critical problem worldwide. Currently, approximately 1 of the worlds population is dependent on desalinated water to meet daily needs, but the UN expects that 1. Desalination is particularly relevant in dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams for water. According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2. This number increased from 7. The single largest desalination project is Ras Al Khair in Saudi Arabia, which produced 1,0. California. 6Kuwait produces a higher proportion of its water than any other country, totaling 1. Schematic of a multistage flash desalinator. Economics Dummies Pdf' title='Economics Dummies Pdf' />B seawater in. C potable water out. F heat exchange. G condensation collection. H brine heater. Methodsedit. Reverse osmosis desalination plant in Barcelona, Spain. There are several methods. Each has advantages and disadvantages. Vacuum distillationeditThe traditional process used in these operations is vacuum distillationessentially boiling it to leave impurities behind. In desalination, atmospheric pressure is reduced, thus lowering the required temperature needed. Liquids boil when the vapor pressure equals the ambient pressure and vapor pressure increases with temperature. Effectively, liquids boil at a lower temperature, when the ambient atmospheric pressure is less than usual atmospheric pressure. How To Install Solar Panels Free Pdf Download Sanyo Solar Panels For Sale How To Install Solar Panels Free Pdf Download Solar Power Plant Construction Cost Solar. Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target. DOWNLOAD HERE http FREE FREE Life and Health Insurance License Exam Cram DOWNLAOD FULL. The central location for Texas CTE instructional and professional development content. Many thousands of articles have been written purporting to explain Bitcoin, the online, peertopeer currency. Most of those articles give a handwavy account of the. Download Free Digital Books in PDF, EPUB and MOBI Formats. We have all books You Are Looking For. Thousands of Free Digital Books on PDFBooksPlanet. Thus, because of the reduced pressure, low temperature waste heat from electrical power generation or industrial processes can be employed. Multi stage flash distillationeditWater is evaporated and separated from sea water through multi stage flash distillation, which is a series of flash evaporations. Each subsequent flash process utilizes energy released from the condensation of the water vapor from the previous step and so on. Multiple effect distillationeditMultiple effect distillation MED works through a series of steps called effects. Incoming water is sprayed onto vertically or, more commonly, horizontally89 oriented pipes which are then heated to generate steam. The steam is then used to heat the next batch of incoming sea water. To increase efficiency, the steam used to heat the sea water can be taken from nearby power plants. Although this method is the most thermodynamically efficient, a few limitations exist such as a max temperature and max number of effects. Game Petualangan Perang Pc. Vapor compression distillationeditVapor compression evaporation involves using either a mechanical compressor or a jet stream to compress the vapor present above the liquid. The compressed vapor is then used to provide the heat needed for the evaporation of the rest of the sea water. Since this system only requires power, it is more efficient if kept at a small scale. Reverse osmosiseditThe principal competing process uses membranes to desalt saline water, principally applying reverse osmosis RO. The RO membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and applied pressure on the membrane feed side to preferentially induce water permeation through the membrane while rejecting salts. Reverse osmosis plant membrane systems typically use less energy than thermal desalination processes. T/526x297-WYe.jpg' alt='Economics Dummies Pdf' title='Economics Dummies Pdf' />Desalination processes are driven by either thermal e. RO as the primary energy types. Energy cost in desalination processes varies considerably depending on water salinity, plant size and process type. Java For Samsung Champ Deluxe. At present the cost of seawater desalination, for example, is higher than traditional water sources, but it is expected that costs will continue to decrease with technology improvements that include, but are not limited to, reduction in plants footprint, improvements to plant operation and optimization, more effective feed pretreatment, and lower cost energy sources. The Reverse Osmosis process is not maintenance free. Various factors interfere with efficiency ionic contamination calcium, magnesium etc. DOC bacteria viruses colloids insoluble particulates biofouling and scaling. In extreme cases destroying the RO membranes. To mitigate damage, various pretreatment stages are introduced. Anti scaling inhibitors include acids and other agents like the organic polymers Polyacrylamide and Polymaleic Acid, Phosphonates and Polyphosphates. Inhibitors for fouling are biocides as oxidants against bacteria and viruses, like chlorine, ozone, sodium or calcium hypochlorite. At regular intervals, depending on the membrane contamination fluctuating seawater conditions or prompted by monitoring processes the membranes need to be cleaned, known as emergency or shock flushing. Flushing is done with inhibitors in a fresh water solution. Thus the system needs to go offline. This procedure is environmental risky, since contaminated water is rejected into the ocean without treatment. Sensitive marine habitats can be irreversibly damaged. Freeze thaweditFreeze thaw desalination uses freezing to remove fresh water from frozen seawater. One method, invented by Alexander Zarchin, used freezing and vacuuming of salt from seawater. Solar evaporationeditSolar evaporation mimics the natural water cycle, in which the sun heats the sea water enough for evaporation to occur. After evaporation, the water vapor is condensed onto a cool surface. Electrodialysis reversaleditElectrodialysis utilizes electric potential to move the salts through a membrane. Considerations and criticismeditEnergy consumptioneditEnergy consumption of seawater desalination has reached as low as 3 k. Whm. 3,1. 6 including pre filtering and ancillaries, similar to the energy consumption of other fresh water supplies transported over large distances,1. Whm. 3 or less. 1. A minimum energy consumption for seawater desalination of around 1 k. Whm. 3 has been determined,1. Under 2 k. Whm. 32. Supplying all US domestic water by desalination would increase domestic energy consumption by around 1. Domestic consumption is a relatively small fraction of the total water usage. Note Electrical equivalent refers to the amount of electrical energy that could be generated using a given quantity of thermal energy and appropriate turbine generator. These calculations do not include the energy required to construct or refurbish items consumed in the process. CogenerationeditCogeneration is generating excess heat and electricity generation from a single process. Cogeneration can provide usable heat for desalination in an integrated, or dual purpose, facility where a power plant provides the energy for desalination.
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